• Mabel Whitchurch

Eyewitness Identification: Comparing the Outcomes of Different Lineups

School of Human Sciences

Institute of Lifecourse Development

University of Greenwich

London SE10 9LS

www.superrecognisers.com

super-recognisers@greenwich.ac.uk

Twitter: @GRecognisers

https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0017-7159

https://www.gre.ac.uk/pg/eduhea/psych


Salomé Da Rocha David and Josh P Davis


We would like to thank the 541 participants who contributed to Salomé’s MSc Psychology (Conversion) dissertation supervised by Josh Davis. Without your help, it would not have been possible. You will find your results against your anonymous code at the bottom of this blog.

A police lineup typically consists of a suspect placed amongst a group of innocent individuals (foils), allowing an eyewitness to attempt to identify the culprit they saw committing a crime (Clark, 2012). Although eyewitness identification is a primary tool in obtaining convictions in court, the risk of wrongful convictions based on mistaken eyewitness identification have long been recognised (The Innocence Project n.d.).

The most common lineup mediums are sequential lineups (typically used in the United Kingdom) and simultaneous lineups (typically used in the United States). It is common that police procedures are enacted, and in some cases put into law before empirical testing of these procedures (Seale-Carlisle & Mickes, 2016). Empirical research is key to ensure that best practices are being followed if at all possible. The current research was designed to evaluate the reliability of the traditional lineup mediums compared to a new type of lineup (the hybrid lineup).

  1. All participants (n = 541) viewed a silent video of a single male actor (the culprit) for roughly 1 minute. There was no crime depicted in the video.

  2. With a delay of a minimum of 7 days and a mean delay of approximately 10 days, participants were randomly allocated to either the sequential lineup condition, the simultaneous lineup condition, or the new hybrid lineup condition. Participants also encountered either a culprit-present or a culprit-absent lineup.

  3. As with real witnesses, participants were informed that the actor they saw in the silent culprit video may or may not be present in the lineup. In the culprit-present lineup, the ‘guilty’ culprit was included in the lineup, yet, in the culprit-absent lineup, only images of foils possessing a similar appearance to the culprit were included in the lineup. The culprit was replaced by an additional foil. Culprit-present lineups represent instances in which the police have apprehended the correct offender, whereas culprit-absent lineups represent instances in which the person apprehended by police is innocent.

  4. All participants were asked to make an identification decision or to reject the lineup.

  5. All participants were asked to rate how confident they were in their identification decision on a 100-point scale.

The overall accuracy rates are displayed in Figure 1 and Figure 2. These are reported in this style so that participants can assess how well they did in comparison to others. We do not report accuracy for each lineup type as we may publish these results in future.


Figure 1. Percentage of correct culprit identifications and incorrect responses in culprit-present (CP) trials. Incorrect responses are foil IDs or lineup rejections.



Figure 2. Percentage of correct lineup rejections and incorrect responses in culprit-absent (CA) trials. Incorrect responses are foil IDs.




There were limitations to the current research, including the lack of representation of real-world scenarios due to the constraints of running the study online. In addition, only one actor – who did not commit a crime - was used as the culprit in the study. They may not be representative of most of the population (e.g., gender, age, ethnicity, distinctiveness). Once again, we would like to thank and show appreciation for everyone who participated in this research. If you are interested in knowing more about the reliability and accuracy of traditional lineup procedures you can visit this site:

https://www.psychologyinaction.org/psychology-in-action-1/2019/7/25/the-debate-on-simultaneous-and-sequential-lineups

Participants' individual scores are displayed below. Do not be disheartened if your results differ from previous studies as this was a particularly difficult actor to identify. The aim of this research was to be challenging.

References

Clark, S. (2012). Costs and Benefits of Eyewitness Identification Reform. Perspectives On Psychological Science, 7(3), 238-259. doi: 10.1177/1745691612439584


Innocence Project - Help us put an end to wrongful convictions!. Retrieved 27 October 2020, from https://www.innocenceproject.org/


Seale-Carlisle, T., & Mickes, L. (2016). US line-ups outperform UK line-ups. Royal Society Open Science, 3(9), 160300. doi: 10.1098/rsos.160300


Table 1. Individual accuracy in culprit-present and culprit-absent lineups


Code Culprit-Presence Accuracy

A00000213 Culprit-Present Correct

A00001441 Culprit-Present Incorrect

A00001687 Culprit-Present Correct

A00002484 Culprit-Present Correct

A00003867 Culprit-Present Correct

A00005570 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

A00005926 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

A00006061 Culprit-Present Correct

A00008110 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

A00008814 Culprit-Present Correct

A00008984 Culprit-Absent Correct Rejection

A00010683 Culprit-Present Correct

A00011263 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

A00011797 Culprit-Present Incorrect

A00012288 Culprit-Present Correct

A00012614 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

A00014874 Culprit-Present Incorrect

A00014901 Culprit-Present Correct

A00014983 Culprit-Present Correct

A00017579 Culprit-Present Correct

A00017980 Culprit-Present Incorrect

A00022597 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

A00035536 Culprit-Present Correct

A00035977 Culprit-Absent Correct Rejection

A00036206 Culprit-Present Correct

A00036787 Culprit-Present Correct

A00037135 Culprit-Absent Correct Rejection

A00037396 Culprit-Present Incorrect

A00037514 Culprit-Present Correct

A00037859 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

A00038073 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

A00039600 Culprit-Present Correct

A00040688 Culprit-Present Correct

A00042173 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

A00046379 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

A00046601 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

A00047386 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

A00048424 Culprit-Absent Correct Rejection

A00051318 Culprit-Present Correct

A00051452 Culprit-Absent Correct Rejection

A00051602 Culprit-Present Incorrect

A00053454 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

A00057595 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

A00060422 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

A00061066 Culprit-Present Correct

A00061666 Culprit-Present Incorrect

A00061701 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

A00062171 Culprit-Absent Correct Rejection

A00062173 Culprit-Present Incorrect

A00063847 Culprit-Present Correct

A00064645 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

A00064719 Culprit-Absent Correct Rejection

A00066230 Culprit-Present Correct

A00067522 Culprit-Present Incorrect

A00067555 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

A00067849 Culprit-Present Correct

A00068038 Culprit-Present Correct

A00068536 Culprit-Present Correct

A00071670 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

A00073921 Culprit-Present Incorrect

A00073968 Culprit-Present Correct

A00078442 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

A00087950 Culprit-Absent Correct Rejection

A00096559 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

A00096598 Culprit-Present Correct

A00097070 Culprit-Present Incorrect

A00097651 Culprit-Present Correct

A00099345 Culprit-Present Correct

A00100449 Culprit-Absent Correct Rejection

A00100598 Culprit-Present Correct

A00100707 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

A00100764 Culprit-Present Correct

A00100854 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

A00100889 Culprit-Present Correct

A00100962 Culprit-Present Correct

A00100988 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

A00103146 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

A00105553 Culprit-Absent Correct Rejection

A00112908 Culprit-Present Correct

A00112936 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

A00112937 Culprit-Absent Correct Rejection

A00113022 Culprit-Present Correct

A00113023 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

A00113136 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

A00113248 Culprit-Present Correct

A00113598 Culprit-Present Correct

A00113655 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

A00114662 Culprit-Present Correct

A00114672 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

A00114718 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

A00115054 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

A00115113 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

A00115329 Culprit-Present Incorrect

A00115500 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

A00115598 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

A00120552 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

A00122895 Culprit-Present Correct

A00128895 Culprit-Present Correct

A00128942 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

A00129145 Culprit-Present Correct

A00129569 Culprit-Present Correct

A00129766 Culprit-Absent Correct Rejection

A00132883 Culprit-Present Incorrect

A00133100 Culprit-Present Correct

A00133239 Culprit-Present Incorrect

A00133864 Culprit-Present Incorrect

A00133868 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

A00133882 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

A00133946 Culprit-Present Correct

A00136818 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

A00137311 Culprit-Absent Correct Rejection

A00137480 Culprit-Absent Correct Rejection

A00137689 Culprit-Present Correct

A00137748 Culprit-Absent Correct Rejection

A00138377 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

A00138936 Culprit-Present Incorrect

A00138974 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

A00139028 Culprit-Present Incorrect

A00139412 Culprit-Present Correct

A00139474 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

A00139531 Culprit-Absent Correct Rejection

A00140268 Culprit-Present Incorrect

A00141431 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

A00142028 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

A00142256 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

A00143261 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

A00143289 Culprit-Present Correct

A00143375 Culprit-Absent Correct Rejection

A00143493 Culprit-Present Correct

A00144160 Culprit-Present Correct

A00144504 Culprit-Absent Correct Rejection

A00144515 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

A00144748 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

A00144820 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

A00144890 Culprit-Absent Correct Rejection

A00144931 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

A00145044 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

A00145120 Culprit-Absent Correct Rejection

A00145137 Culprit-Present Incorrect

A00145211 Culprit-Present Incorrect

A00145834 Culprit-Present Correct

A00145993 Culprit-Present Correct

A00146178 Culprit-Present Correct

A00146792 Culprit-Absent Correct Rejection

A00146832 Culprit-Present Correct

A00147127 Culprit-Present Correct

A00147399 Culprit-Absent Correct Rejection

A00147728 Culprit-Absent Correct Rejection

A00148106 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

A00148313 Culprit-Absent Correct Rejection

A00148800 Culprit-Absent Correct Rejection

A00158986 Culprit-Present Incorrect

A00159134 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

A00160949 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

A00168322 Culprit-Absent Correct Rejection

A00172447 Culprit-Present Incorrect

A00172566 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

A00177638 Culprit-Absent Correct Rejection

A00177692 Culprit-Absent Correct Rejection

A00177712 Culprit-Present Incorrect

A00177995 Culprit-Present Correct

A00178406 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

A00178960 Culprit-Present Correct

A00179423 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

A00208148 Culprit-Absent Correct Rejection

A00212670 Culprit-Present Correct

A00217867 Culprit-Absent Correct Rejection

A00219590 Culprit-Absent Correct Rejection

A00221566 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

A00221749 Culprit-Present Incorrect

A00222911 Culprit-Present Incorrect

A00223166 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

A00223217 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

A00223331 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

A00223432 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

A00223708 Culprit-Present Correct

A00223858 Culprit-Present Correct

A00223907 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

A00223930 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

A00224067 Culprit-Present Correct

A00224127 Culprit-Absent Correct Rejection

A00224163 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

A00224278 Culprit-Absent Correct Rejection

A00224328 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

A00224343 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

A00224406 Culprit-Absent Correct Rejection

A00224458 Culprit-Absent Correct Rejection

A00224459 Culprit-Absent Correct Rejection

A00224525 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

A00224620 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

A00224652 Culprit-Absent Correct Rejection

A00224666 Culprit-Present Correct

A00224979 Culprit-Present Correct

A00226074 Culprit-Present Correct

A00226959 Culprit-Present Incorrect

A00226974 Culprit-Present Correct

A00227140 Culprit-Present Correct

A00229054 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

A00230867 Culprit-Absent Correct Rejection

A00231085 Culprit-Present Incorrect

A00231825 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

A00231857 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

A00231974 Culprit-Present Incorrect

A00233074 Culprit-Absent Correct Rejection

A00233958 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

A00237498 Culprit-Present Correct

A00237617 Culprit-Present Correct

A00240628 Culprit-Present Correct

A00240632 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

A00240720 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

A00241155 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

A00241180 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

A00241322 Culprit-Present Correct

A00241456 Culprit-Present Incorrect

A00241619 Culprit-Present Correct

A00275977 Culprit-Present Correct

A00278655 Culprit-Present Correct

A00279556 Culprit-Absent Correct Rejection

A00279742 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

A00280080 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

A00280166 Culprit-Present Correct

A00281720 Culprit-Present Correct

A00281722 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

A00282243 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

A00285001 Culprit-Present Correct

A00285024 Culprit-Present Correct

A00286751 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

A00287422 Culprit-Absent Correct Rejection

A00287681 Culprit-Present Incorrect

A00287931 Culprit-Present Incorrect

A00287963 Culprit-Present Correct

A00289122 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

A00291301 Culprit-Present Incorrect

A00291553 Culprit-Absent Correct Rejection

A00291592 Culprit-Absent Correct Rejection

A00292097 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

A00292732 Culprit-Present Correct

A00293718 Culprit-Present Correct

A00294111 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

A00296233 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

A00296870 Culprit-Present Correct

A00296912 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

A00297115 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

A00297263 Culprit-Absent Correct Rejection

A00297283 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

A00301341 Culprit-Absent Correct Rejection

A00301772 Culprit-Absent Correct Rejection

A00309501 Culprit-Present Incorrect

A00309570 Culprit-Absent Correct Rejection

A00309616 Culprit-Present Correct

A00309659 Culprit-Present Correct

A00309720 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

A00309808 Culprit-Present Incorrect

A00309818 Culprit-Absent Correct Rejection

A00309836 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

A00309911 Culprit-Present Correct

A00309924 Culprit-Present Correct

A00309930 Culprit-Absent Correct Rejection

A00310044 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

A00310057 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

A00310088 Culprit-Present Correct

A00310121 Culprit-Present Correct

A00310249 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

A00310269 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

A00310368 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

A00310390 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

A00310434 Culprit-Present Correct

A00310481 Culprit-Present Incorrect

A00310647 Culprit-Present Correct

A00310678 Culprit-Absent Correct Rejection

A00310698 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

A00310814 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

A00310914 Culprit-Present Correct

A00311036 Culprit-Absent Correct Rejection

A00311072 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

A00311083 Culprit-Absent Correct Rejection

A00311099 Culprit-Present Correct

A00311110 Culprit-Present Incorrect

A00311389 Culprit-Absent Correct Rejection

A00311431 Culprit-Present Correct

A00311436 Culprit-Present Correct

A00311500 Culprit-Present Correct

A00311532 Culprit-Present Correct

A00311913 Culprit-Present Incorrect

A00311961 Culprit-Present Incorrect

A00312394 Culprit-Present Correct

A00312467 Culprit-Present Incorrect

A00312610 Culprit-Present Correct

A00313109 Culprit-Present Correct

A00313116 Culprit-Present Correct

A00313143 Culprit-Present Correct

A00313274 Culprit-Present Incorrect

A00313316 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

A00313349 Culprit-Present Correct

A00313551 Culprit-Present Correct

A00313561 Culprit-Present Correct

A00313606 Culprit-Present Correct

A00313616 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

A00313761 Culprit-Absent Correct Rejection

A00313762 Culprit-Present Correct

A00313777 Culprit-Present Correct

A00313853 Culprit-Present Correct

A00313904 Culprit-Present Correct

A00313940 Culprit-Present Correct

A00313972 Culprit-Absent Correct Rejection

A00313974 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

A00313977 Culprit-Absent Correct Rejection

A00314039 Culprit-Absent Correct Rejection

A00314088 Culprit-Present Correct

A00314097 Culprit-Present Correct

A00314099 Culprit-Present Correct

A00314111 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

A00314113 Culprit-Absent Correct Rejection

A00314131 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

A00314139 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

A00314200 Culprit-Absent Correct Rejection

A00314216 Culprit-Present Correct

A00314220 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

A00314285 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

A00314295 Culprit-Present Correct

A00314299 Culprit-Present Correct

A00314352 Culprit-Present Correct

A00314378 Culprit-Absent Correct Rejection

A00314398 Culprit-Absent Correct Rejection

A00314529 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

A00314560 Culprit-Present Correct

A00314571 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

A00314700 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

A00314750 Culprit-Present Correct

A00314894 Culprit-Present Correct

A00314906 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

A00314940 Culprit-Present Incorrect

A00315001 Culprit-Present Correct

A00315012 Culprit-Present Correct

A00315048 Culprit-Present Correct

A00315077 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

A00315115 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

A00315183 Culprit-Present Incorrect

A00315281 Culprit-Present Correct

A00315282 Culprit-Absent Correct Rejection

A00315308 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

A00315334 Culprit-Present Incorrect

A00315338 Culprit-Present Correct

A00315377 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

A00315382 Culprit-Present Correct

A00315455 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

A00315460 Culprit-Present Correct

A00315510 Culprit-Present Correct

A00315516 Culprit-Absent Correct Rejection

A00315551 Culprit-Absent Correct Rejection

A00315583 Culprit-Present Correct

A00315603 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

A00315625 Culprit-Absent Correct Rejection

A00315673 Culprit-Absent Correct Rejection

A00315786 Culprit-Absent Correct Rejection

A00315860 Culprit-Present Correct

A00315868 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

A00315885 Culprit-Present Correct

A00315943 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

A00316049 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

A00316058 Culprit-Absent Correct Rejection

A00316059 Culprit-Present Correct

A00316120 Culprit-Present Correct

A00316136 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

A00316196 Culprit-Absent Correct Rejection

A00316229 Culprit-Absent Correct Rejection

A00316246 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

A00316326 Culprit-Present Correct

A00316421 Culprit-Absent Correct Rejection

A00316606 Culprit-Present Incorrect

A00316643 Culprit-Present Incorrect

A00316661 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

A00316750 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

A00316757 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

A00316814 Culprit-Present Incorrect

A00316835 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

A00316863 Culprit-Present Correct

A00317187 Culprit-Absent Correct Rejection

A00317189 Culprit-Present Correct

A00317195 Culprit-Present Incorrect

A00317255 Culprit-Absent Correct Rejection

A00317264 Culprit-Absent Correct Rejection

A00317265 Culprit-Present Incorrect

A00317269 Culprit-Present Correct

A00317274 Culprit-Present Correct

A00317305 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

A00317308 Culprit-Present Incorrect

A00317315 Culprit-Absent Correct Rejection

A00317316 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

A00317336 Culprit-Present Incorrect

A00317364 Culprit-Present Correct

A00317382 Culprit-Absent Correct Rejection

A00317386 Culprit-Present Correct

A00317395 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

A00317403 Culprit-Present Incorrect

A00317404 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

A00317405 Culprit-Present Correct

A00317411 Culprit-Present Correct

A00317417 Culprit-Present Incorrect

A00317422 Culprit-Present Correct

A00317426 Culprit-Present Incorrect

A00317430 Culprit-Present Correct

A00317436 Culprit-Present Incorrect

A00317450 Culprit-Present Correct

A00317472 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

A00935675 Culprit-Absent Correct Rejection

A11111111 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

A13950111 Culprit-Present Correct

A14082008 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

A27104010 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

B00000211 Culprit-Present Correct

B00000420 Culprit-Absent Correct Rejection

B00000452 Culprit-Present Correct

B00000511 Culprit-Present Incorrect

B00000540 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

B00000777 Culprit-Present Correct

B00002411 Culprit-Present Correct

B00002451 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

B00002517 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

B00002574 Culprit-Present Correct

B00002645 Culprit-Present Correct

B00002677 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

B00002688 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

B00002727 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

B00002740 Culprit-Absent Correct Rejection

B00002779 Culprit-Present Incorrect

B00002896 Culprit-Present Correct

B00002942 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

B00002994 Culprit-Absent Correct Rejection

B00003024 Culprit-Absent Correct Rejection

B00003066 Culprit-Absent Correct Rejection

B00003077 Culprit-Present Incorrect

B00003103 Culprit-Absent Correct Rejection

B00003139 Culprit-Present Incorrect

B00003261 Culprit-Present Correct

B00003319 Culprit-Absent Correct Rejection

B00003374 Culprit-Present Correct

B00003394 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

B00003434 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

B00003517 Culprit-Absent Correct Rejection

B00003653 Culprit-Absent Correct Rejection

B00003733 Culprit-Present Incorrect

B00003766 Culprit-Absent Correct Rejection

B00003769 Culprit-Present Incorrect

B00003780 Culprit-Present Correct

B00003791 Culprit-Present Correct

B00003831 Culprit-Present Incorrect

B00003854 Culprit-Present Correct

B00003929 Culprit-Present Incorrect

B00004192 Culprit-Present Correct

B00004333 Culprit-Present Correct

B00004431 Culprit-Present Correct

B00004440 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

B00004662 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

B00004777 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

B00004783 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

B00004808 Culprit-Present Correct

B00004867 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

B00004990 Culprit-Present Correct

B00005111 Culprit-Present Incorrect

B00005191 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

B00005310 Culprit-Present Correct

B00005323 Culprit-Absent Correct Rejection

B00005334 Culprit-Absent Correct Rejection

B00005485 Culprit-Present Incorrect

B00005580 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

B00005716 Culprit-Present Incorrect

B00005777 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

B00005858 Culprit-Absent Correct Rejection

B00005920 Culprit-Absent Correct Rejection

B00006076 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

B00006152 Culprit-Present Correct

B00006192 Culprit-Present Incorrect

B00006256 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

B00006658 Culprit-Present Incorrect

B00006707 Culprit-Present Correct

B00006808 Culprit-Present Correct

B00006847 Culprit-Absent Correct Rejection

B00006869 Culprit-Present Incorrect

B00006930 Culprit-Present Correct

B00007176 Culprit-Present Correct

B00007209 Culprit-Absent Correct Rejection

B00007341 Culprit-Present Incorrect

B00007347 Culprit-Present Incorrect

B00007415 Culprit-Present Correct

B00007578 Culprit-Present Correct

B00007965 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

B00010557 Culprit-Present Correct

C01122214 Culprit-Present Incorrect

K48910111 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

K98441357 Culprit-Absent Correct Rejection

L98765432 Culprit-Present Correct

M22554631 Culprit-Present Correct

N77777778 Culprit-Absent Correct Rejection

S37150427 Culprit-Absent Correct Rejection

T01203304 Culprit-Present Incorrect

T09079601 Culprit-Absent Correct Rejection

T09659975 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

T10032221 Culprit-Present Incorrect

T10614266 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

T16653690 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

T17777563 Culprit-Present Correct

T20200202 Culprit-Present Correct

T20778198 Culprit-Present Correct

T21872232 Culprit-Present Incorrect

T24671681 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

T25534277 Culprit-Absent Correct Rejection

T31922327 Culprit-Present Correct

T37186919 Culprit-Present Correct

T39507188 Culprit-Absent Correct Rejection

T40169900 Culprit-Present Incorrect

T43485202 Culprit-Present Incorrect

T47284670 Culprit-Present Correct

T48382832 Culprit-Present Correct

T48813589 Culprit-Absent Correct Rejection

T52036234 Culprit-Present Incorrect

T55882537 Culprit-Present Correct

T56338861 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

T58229546 Culprit-Present Correct

T59883766 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

T65393737 Culprit-Present Incorrect

T68773524 Culprit-Present Incorrect

T68929039 Culprit-Present Incorrect

T71448366 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

T75311640 Culprit-Present Correct

T76853232 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

T84407029 Culprit-Absent Correct Rejection

T85235287 Culprit-Absent Correct Rejection

T85456170 Culprit-Absent False Alarm

T86632259 Culprit-Present Incorrect

T90250662 Culprit-Present Correct

T92063133 Culprit-Present Incorrect

T92565169 Culprit-Present Correct

T95841591 Culprit-Present Incorrect

T96229784 Culprit-Present Correct

T99884215 Culprit-Present Correct

Z23456789 Culprit-Present Correct

Z24584931 Culprit-Present Incorrect



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Supervisor: Dr Josh P Davis

Applied Psychology Research Group

University of Greenwich

Old Royal Naval College,

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